Conceptual version of a comprehensive energy saving program.
as an exception, unsubstantiated (ie without evidence) research; changing the structure of research in favor of those that give a lower dose load; introduction of new equipment equipped with modern electronic equipment for enhanced visual imaging; use of screens to protect areas of the body to be studied, etc.
These measures, however, do not exhaust the problem of ensuring maximum patient safety and optimal use of these diagnostic methods. The system of ensuring radiation safety of patients can be complete and effective if it is supplemented by hygienic regulations of admissible doses of irradiation.
Conclusion. All living organisms have their own radiosensitivity – the ability to respond to stimuli caused by the absorbed energy of ionizing radiation. Radiosensitivity is most often assessed by the lethal effects of radiation. Different biological objects have different levels of radiosensitivity. For example good narrative topics, some simple organisms, bacteria, viruses are able to tolerate huge doses of radiation 1000-10000 Gy (10000-1000000 P) and still maintain their vital functions.
In mammals, resistance to ionizing radiation is much lower. The analysis of accidents shows that the absolute lethal dose for humans is 600 +/- 100 P, and the immediate (immediate) effects of irradiation do not develop at doses less than 100 P of short-term exposure.
In general, the sensitivity of the cell to radiation depends on the speed of metabolic processes occurring in them, the number of intracellular structures and the intensity of cell division.
D. Nikitin, Y. Novikov “Environment and Man” 1986. Coggle J. Biological effects of radiation. M .: Mir, 1986; Grodzinsky DM Radiobiology of plants. 1989. Perederiy VA, Tkach GM Sources and biological effects of ionizing radiation. 1988. Zhuravlev VF Toxicology of radioactive substances. 1990. Life safety. Textbook. – K., 2000.
Basic principles of energy saving in modern Ukraine. Abstract
Energy saving is a priority of Ukraine’s state policy. Energy saving incentive mechanism. Comprehensive research program of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine “scientific and technical bases for solving energy saving problems”
Energy saving is a priority of Ukraine’s state policy. Given the importance of the problem of energy savings on a global scale, in almost all countries, various measures are being taken to reduce the amount of energy consumed in both industrial and social spheres. Many countries around the world have adopted national energy saving programs. Such a program has been developed in our country as well.
Here are the symbols found in the article:
GTU – gas turbine unit; KDPE – Comprehensive State Energy Saving Program of Ukraine; KKV – energy efficiency; NEP – National Energy Program; NPDE – non-traditional and renewable energy sources; CCGT – steam and gas installation; FEC – fuel and energy complex; FER – fuel and energy resources; CE – power electronics.
Comprehensive state energy saving program of Ukraine. The basis of energy saving policy in our country is KDPE of Ukraine. Based on the current state of energy supply and the level of efficiency in the use of energy resources in Ukraine in April 1995, the President and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine decided to take measures to develop a Comprehensive State Energy Saving Program of Ukraine.
Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of November 15 № 911 The State Committee for Energy and Saving of Ukraine together with the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine instructed to develop such a program. KDPE was approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine # 148 of February 5, 1997.
The purpose of the KDPE of Ukraine is to develop the main directions of the state energy saving policy on the basis of the analysis of the current state and forecasts of economic development, which provided creation of the normative-legal base of energy saving, formation of economic favorable environment, creation of integral and effective system of state energy saving management. The strategic goal of the Program is to bring Ukraine out of the energy and economic crisis and reach the level of advanced countries in energy consumption.
The main tasks of KDPE are to determine the overall existing and future potential of energy saving, development of the main directions of its implementation in material production and services, creating a program of priority and future measures and tasks to improve energy efficiency and practical practical energy saving potential.
The program is designed for practical use in enterprises and organizations, at the local, sectoral and state levels; it contains specific, most important energy saving measures, which in their implementation will give a significant energy saving and economic effect.
Presented in the development program to create a system of public energy management, its regulatory framework for the formation of an economic environment conducive to improving the efficient use of energy resources, actually created the basis and formed the basis of economic mechanisms in the field of energy saving.
The developments are made in such a way that on their basis a series of relevant laws and bylaws can be created and formulated, including those that are necessary for the implementation and functioning of the Law of Ukraine “On Energy Conservation”. KDPE also laid the foundations of education, training and training in energy saving, popularization of knowledge in this area.
The program is developed for the period till 2010 taking into account the Program of activity of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for 1995-1996, the main provisions and on the basic bases accepted in NEP of Ukraine, “Global strategy of energy saving for Ukraine “” Program of structural restructuring of economy of Ukraine “. the program of development of the mining and metallurgical complex of Ukraine “National program” Oil and gas of Ukraine till 2010 “programs of development of industries, other sectors of economy and social sphere, and also the Conceptual variant of the complex program of energy saving …
KDPE summarizes and integrates sectoral programs and developments to improve energy efficiency and energy saving; in relation to sectoral energy saving programs, it is a top-level program.
The program will be implemented in three stages. The first has been held since 1997. During this period, special attention was paid to stopping unjustified consumption of fuel and energy, ensuring the implementation of non-capital-intensive energy saving measures. This made it possible to reduce the cost of energy resources by 10-15% and, accordingly, save more than $ 200 million. USA.
The second stage (1998-2000) is associated with the implementation of measures to improve the energy efficiency of the existing technical and technological potential, which will save another 15-25% of the required amount of energy resources and about $ 300 million. USA.
The third stage, which will be completed in 2010, is due to the restructuring of Ukraine’s economy, which will reduce the need for energy resources to 30%, stabilize their consumption and achieve the optimal level of self-sufficiency. Foreign exchange spending will decrease by $ 4.7 billion. USA.
In the period up to 2000, energy saving measures are planned in all industries, which in total will save 35.9 million tons in 2000. n., In 2005 the possible savings of energy resources will be 68.7 million tons. At the level of 2010, almost 108.8 million tons can be saved. n.
The estimated total needs for energy resources for 2010 will be 320-330 million tons. n. against actually used in 1995 226.3 million tons. n., ie the increase will be 42-46%. However, this need will be only 91-93% of the maximum level of consumption reached in 1990.
Industry has the largest share in the structure of energy saving potential – 58-59%, followed by fuel and energy – 19-20%, utilities – 11-12%, transport – 7-7.7%, agriculture – 3-3.5 %.
Investments needed to realize the energy saving potential by 2010 will amount to about $ 6 billion. USA.
At the first stage of KDPE of Ukraine, technologies were introduced that paid off quickly and did not require significant investments. Such technologies include: individual (decentralized) heating of buildings, use of steam pressure for electricity production in large heating and industrial boilers, radiant (radiation) space heating, decentralized production of electricity and heat using gas diesel or gas turbine generators, replacement of electric heating.
The second stage of KDPE of Ukraine provides for the introduction of, in particular, the following technologies: raising the blast temperature in blast furnaces, the use of indirect radiative heating of metal in metallurgical production and mechanical engineering, the use of regenerative burners, the use of pressure drops in gas pipelines thermal insulation of buildings, transfer of wet clinker technology to dry, use of heat of exhaust gases for heating and drying of raw materials, production of bricks with high void, use of coal beneficiation and ash waste, introduction of CE devices and economical lighting devices, metering and control systems and others.
During the second and third of KDPE Ukraine dry coke quenching, coal dust injection into blast furnaces to replace coke and natural gas, replacement of open-hearth steel production by converter and heat utilization of converter gases, introduction of continuous steel casting installations, superstructure of boilers parameters, creation of domestic CCGT with KKV 52% and above, reconstruction of energy-intensive plants for production of ammonia, urea and methanol, introduction of secondary methods of oil and gas production, deepening of oil refining through introduction of secondary processes, use of hydrothermal energy sources and others.
This program is based on the development and implementation of sectoral and regional energy saving programs. In particular, it should be noted “Program of gradual equipping of the existing housing stock with means of accounting and regulation of water and heat consumption for 1996-2000” (approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of November 27, 1995 …